Afghanistan’s Executive branch is constitutionally mandated to implement laws, rules and regulations. In accordance with Article 71 of the Constitution, the Executive branch is comprised of ministers who work under the chairmanship of the President. Ministers are appointed by the President and approved by the Wolesi Jirga (Lower House of Afghanistan’s National Assembly).
Afghanistan’s Executive branch is currently comprised of 25 ministries listed below:
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)
- Ministry of Defence (MoD)
- Ministry of Interior Affairs (MoI)
- Ministry of Finance (MoF)
- Ministry of Justice (MoJ)
- Ministry of Education (MoE)
- Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE)
- Ministry of Water and Energy (MoWE)
- Ministry of Hajj and Religious Affairs (MoJRA)
- Ministry of Public Works (MoPW)
- Ministry of Information and Culture (MoIC)
- Ministry of Public Health (MoPH)
- Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL)
- Ministry of Economy (MoEc)
- Ministry of Mines (MoM)
- Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MoCIT)
- Ministry of Commerce and Industries (MOCI)
- Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD)
- Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled (MoLSMD)
- Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation (MoTCA)
- Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MoWA)
- Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation (MoRR)
- Ministry of Counter-Narcotics (MoCN)
- Ministry of Border and Tribal Affairs (MoBTA)
The Office of Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs is the main body for coordination and liaison between the Executive and the Legislature. The Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs is appointed by the President and does not need a vote of confidence from the Wolesi Jirga.
The Attorney General Office (AGO)
The Attorney General Office is technically part of the Executive branch, but it operates independently. Pursuant to Article 134 of the Constitution, investigating crime and filing cases against the accused in court are the responsibilities of the Attorney General’s Office.
The Attorney General Office enforces rule of law and protects civil rights of the citizens, government institutions, political parties and social organizations. Meanwhile, it supervises the implementation of laws, regulations, government decrees and final verdicts of the courts.
It also takes measures in order to prevent crimes and take legal actions against the suspected or accused people. The Attorney General is appointed by the President with the confirmation of the Wolesi Jirga. The Attorney General is the top prosecutor in Afghanistan.
The Executive branch also has more than 10 independent departments/bodies whose heads are appointed by the President. However, three of them -- National Directorate of Security, Afghan Red Crescent Society and Afghanistan Central Bank -- need trust votes from the Wolesi Jirga.
Government institutions are formed in order to carry out Executive duties set forth in the Constitution. The institutions can propose laws and regulations in order to manage and improve their organizations and duties.
Independent departments/agencies are listed below:
- Office of Administrative Affairs and Council of Ministers Secretariat (OAA)
- National Directorate of Security (NDS)
- Afghan Red Crescent Society (ARCS)
- Da Afghanistan Bank/ Afghanistan Central Bank (DAB)
- Kabul Municipality
- Afghanistan Science Academy (ASA)
- National Olympic Committee of Afghanistan
- Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority (ANDMA)
- Control and Audit Office (CAO)
- National Environment Protection Agency (NEPA)
- Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO)
- Afghanistan Investment Support Agency (AISA)
- Central Statistics Office (CSO)
- Afghanistan Telecommunication Regularity Authority (ATRA)
- Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (Afghanistan Electricity Authority) (DABS)
- The Dehsabz – Barikab City Development Authority (DCDA)
- Independent Directorate of Local Governance (IDLG)
- Afghanistan National Standards Authority (ANSA)
- High Office of Oversight and Anti-Corruption (HOOAC)
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has formed several commissions in areas of national concern and for various purposes and duties. The commissions are listed below:
- Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC)
- Independent Administrative Reforms and civil Service Commission (IARCSC)
- Independent Election Commission (IEC)
- Electoral Complaints Commission (ECC)
- Independent Commission for the Supervision of the Implementation of the Constitution (COC)
- Dispute Resolution Commission
Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission
Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) was established on June 06, 2002 pursuant to the Bonn Agreement (5 December 2001) and on the basis of the decree of the Chairman of the Interim Administration.
The Commission performs its activities in the areas of promotion, protection and monitoring of human rights as well as the investigation of human rights abuses in Afghanistan.